Semiconductor Materials

A Semiconductor material has the ability to control the number of charge carriers due to its sensitivity to impurities in the crystal lattice. The controlled addition of these impurities known as doping allows the tuning of electronic properties of a semiconductor material, an important requirement for technological applications.

We offer Semiconductor wafers with diameters ranging from 2” to 8”. To satisfy our customers’ requirements, substrates and deposited thin film layers are manufactured as required and delivered according to their specifications.

General Applications
  • Transistors
  • Microchips
  • Solar Cells
  • LED Displays
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Our wafer substrates are compliant to Customer Specific Specifications for Prime and Test Grades Wafers, and they are in line with both SEMI (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International) and JEIDA (Japan Electronic Industries Development Associations) Specifications.

Silicon Wafers are manufactured from Monocrystalline Silicon and are typically used in applications such as Electronic Integrated Circuits (ICs).

Types of Monocrystalline Silicon Wafers include:

  • Czochralski (CZ) Mono-Crystalline Silicon
  • Float-Zone (FZ) Mono-Crystalline Silicon
General Specifications for Silicon Wafers
Silicon Wafers Specifications
Wafer Diameters2”, 3”, 4”, 5”, 6” and 8”
50 mm, 75 mm, 100 mm, 125 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm
Orientation<1-0-0>, <1-1-0> or <1-1-1>
DopantsN-Type – Phosphorous, Antimony or Arsenic
P-Type – Boron
Thin Film CoatingsMetals and Oxides
Coating Thicknesses 500 – 30,000 Å / ± 2 – 10%
Specialized Coatings of Thickness 15 µm
Lapping / Polishing CapabilitiesSingle and Double-Sided Processing
Customized ServicesLaser Manufacturing Services
Custom Sizing and Dicing
Czochralski Mono-Crystalline Silicon

Types of CZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon include:

  • Czochralski-Silicon (CZ-Si)
  • Magnetic Czochralski Silicon (MCZ-Si)
  • Czochralski Heavily Doped Silicon (CZ Heavily Doped Silicon)
Typical Specifications for CZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon
CZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon Specifications
TypeDiameter mmOrientationConductivityResistivity Ω.cm
CZ-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0>, <1-1-0> & <1-1-1>N & P1 – 300
MCZ-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0>, <1-1-0> & <1-1-1>N & P1 – 300
Heavy Doped76.2 – 200<1-0-0> & <1-1-1>N & P0.001 – 1
Float-Zone Mono-Crystalline Silicon

Types of FZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon include:

  • Float-Zone Silicon (FZ-Si)
  • Float-Zone Neutron Transmutation Doped Silicon (FZNTD-Si)
  • Float-Zone Gas Doped Silicon (FZGD-Si)
  • Czochralski & Float-Zone Silicon (CFZ-Si)
Typical Specifications for FZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon Specifications
FZ Mono-Crystalline Silicon Specifications
TypeDiameter mmOrientationConductivityResistivity Ω.cm
FZ-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0> & <1-1-1>N & P> 1000
FZNTD-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0> & <1-1-1>N30 – 800
FZGD-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0> & <1-1-1>N & P0.001 – 300
CFZ-Si76.2 – 200<1-0-0> & <1-1-1>N & P1 – 50

High Purity Germanium is a Semiconductor material with similar characteristics and properties to that of Monocrystalline Silicon and is commonly used in Fibre Optics, Infrared (IR) Optics and Solar Cell applications.

High Purity Germanium is manufactured and delivered in various forms such as Granules, Powders, Rods, Optics and Wafers.

Typical Forms and Specifications for High Purity Germanium
Germanium Granules
Sliver Grey Granules Specifications
DiameterHeightShapePurity
Ø5 mm2.5 mmConeGe ≥ 99.999%
Ø7 mm2.5 mmConeGe ≥ 99.999%
Ø4 mm1 mmCylinderGe ≥ 99.999%
Ø7 mm2.5 mmCylinderGe ≥ 99.999%
Ø7 mm5 mmCylinderGe ≥ 99.999%
Allows for customisation to fulfil customers’ requirements
Germanium Powders
Black Grey Powder Specifications
Typical PurityWire Mesh Granularity
≥ 99.999%≤ 200 Mesh
Germanium for IR Optics
IR Optics Germanium Specifications
DiameterThickness ToleranceResistivity RangeTransmittance
≤ 105 mm± 0.02 mm / ± 0.05 mm1 – 40 Ω.cm> 46%
Monocrystalline / Polycrystalline Germanium Rods

Typical Applications

  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Infrared Optical Devices
  • Solar Cell Substrates
Zone Refined Germanium
Germanium Single Crystals and Germanium Alloys Specifications
ShapeSpecificationsResistivity
Silver Grey Ingot-ShapedN-Type / P-Type≥ 50 Ω.cm (23°C ± 0.5°C)
Monocrystalline Germanium Substrates / Wafers
Germanium Wafers for Semiconductor / IR Optical Lens Specifications
ShapeSpecificationsResistivityDiameter Range
Silver Grey WaferN-TypeN-Type 0.001-50 Ω.cmØ12 – Ø300 mm
P-TypeP-Type 0.001-40 Ω.cm

Epitaxial Wafers are semiconducting materials derived from Epitaxial growth (Epitaxy) for use in the Microelectronics industry.

Epitaxial Wafer substrates comply with both XT and Customers’ Specific Specifications. They conform to both SEMI (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International) Standards for Discrete Devices and ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Specifications for Test and Measurement Methods.

Types of Epitaxial Wafers include:

  • Silicon Epitaxial Wafers (Up to diameters of 8”)
  • Silicon on Sapphire Epitaxial Wafers (Up to diameters of 6”)
Typical Specifications for Epitaxial Wafers
Epitaxial Wafers Specifications
Per Applicable Customer /
XT’s Specifications
Silicon Epitaxial WafersSilicon on Sapphire
Epitaxial Wafers
Wafer Diameter3”, 4”, 6”, 8”3”, 4”, 6”
Orientation<1-1-1> & <1-0-0>(1012) ± 1°
Substrate DopantAntimony, Boron, ArsenicNA
EPI-Layer Thickness µm3.0 – 1500.3 – 2.0
EPI Layer DopantPhosphorous, Boron, ArsenicPhosphorous, Boron
EPI-Layer Resistivity Ω.cm
N-Type
P-Type
0.01 – 500
0.01 – 100
Per XT’s Specifications
0.01 – 1.0
Multi-Layer StructuresUp to 4 Layers
Per Customer Specifications
NA
Buried-Layer EpitaxyUp to 3 Buried LayersNA

A SOI Wafer is a three-layered semiconducting material that helps to reduce the power and heat while increasing the speed performance of a Microelectromechanical device.

SOI Wafers are available with varying ranges of wafer sizes and thicknesses, allowing for customisation to fulfil specific customer requirements.

Types of SOI Wafers include:

  • Thick SOI Wafers
  • Ultra-Thin SOI Wafers
  • Ultra-Uniform SOI Wafers
  • Ultra-Flat SOI Wafers
Typical Specifications for SOI Wafers
SOI Wafers Specifications
Wafer DiameterResistivityDevice Layer ThicknessDevice Layer UniformityBox Layer ThicknessHandle Layer Thickness

2”, 3″, 4″, 5″, 6″, 8”

0.001 – 30000+ Ω.cm100 nm – 200 µm

± 0.01 µm
± 0.15 µm
± 0.50 µm

Up to 15 µmUp to 100 µm

Thin Film Deposition is a manufacturing technology where a thin layer of material with thickness ranging from nanometres to micrometres is applied onto a substrate or wafer.

The Thin Film Deposition manufacturing process is the basic manufacturing foundation for:

  • Semiconductors
  • Solar Panels
  • Disk Drives
  • Optical Devices

Thin Film Processes:

  • Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD)
    • Direct Current (DC) Magnetron Sputtering
    • Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering
  • Wet & Dry Thermal Oxidation
  • Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (LPCVD)
  • Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD)
  • Evaporation Process

Thin Film PVD Materials include:

  • Aluminium (Al) / Alloys, Gold (Au), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Silver (Ag)
  • Carbon (C), Cobalt (Co) / Alloys, Chromium (Cr) / Alloys, Copper (Cu) / Alloys
  • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Nickel (Ni) / Alloys
  • Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt)
  • Ruthenium (Ru)
  • Silicon (Si) / Alloys,
  • Tantalum (Ta) / Alloys, Titanium (Ti) / Alloys
  • Vanadium (V)
  • Tungsten (W) / Alloys
  • Zirconium (Zr) / Zirconium Dioxide (ZrO2)

 

Typical Specifications for Thin Film Deposition techniques:
Physical Vapour Deposition
DC Magnetron Sputtering
RF Sputtering
Film ThicknessToleranceFilm ThicknessTolerance
20 Å – 30 kű 10%20 Å – 30 kű 10%
Thermal Oxidation
Wet Thermal Oxidation
Dry Thermal Oxidation
Film ThicknessToleranceFilm ThicknessTolerance
2000 Å – 100 kű 10%500 Å – 2000 ű 10%
LPCVD FILMS
Materials
Film Thickness
Tolerance
Tensile Stress
Stoichiometric Nitride100 Å – 4000 ű 10%> 800 MPa
Low Stress Nitride50 Å – 2 µm± 10%< 250 MPa
Super Low Stress Nitride50 Å – 2 µm± 10%< 100 MPa
PECVD FILMS
Materials
Film Thickness
Tolerance
Stresses
Oxide100 Å – 3 µm± 10%Compressive Film Stress
Oxy Nitride100 Å – 2 µm± 10%250 MPa Tensile

 

Thin Film Coatings (Evaporation Process)

Typical Types of Evaporation Coatings:

  • High Efficiency Anti-Reflection Coatings
  • Metallic Mirror Coatings
  • Dielectric Laser Line High Reflectors
  • Broadband Dielectric High Reflectors
  • Band-Pass and Narrow Band Filters
  • Narrow Band and Deep Blocking Notch Filters
  • Steep-Slope and Deep Blocking Edge Filters
  • Dichroic Colour Filters
  • Neutral Density, Dielectric and Immersed Beam Splitters
  • Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters
  • Hot and Cold Mirrors
  • Hydrophobic Coatings
  • Transparent Conductive ITO Coatings
  • Low Reflectance Coatings

Evaporation Coating Substrates:

  • Optical Glass
  • Fused Silica
  • Sapphire
  • Calcium Fluoride
  • Laser Crystals
  • Silicon Wafer
  • Glass Wafer
  • Polymers